Pachyrhinosaurus (name meaning "Thick-Nosed Lizard") is a genus of herbivorous ceratopsian dinosaur that originated during the Late Cretaceous period in what is now North America. A relative of Triceratops and Torosaurus that measured over 7 meters long and a maximum of 4 tons, these were one of the largest members of the ceratopsian family.
In the episode "Lake Primal", several Pachyrhinosaurus were brought back to the park from Late Cretaceous Alberta Canada 70 million years ago. They reside in the Ceratopsian Grasslands enclosure.
Era & DiscoveryEdit
Pachyrhinosaurus lived in North America during the Late Cretaceous period, from 73–65 million years ago. It lived alongside dinosaurs and other creatures like Troodon, Parksosaurus, Parasaurolophus, Edmontosaurus, Quetzalcoatlus, Albertosaurus, and Gorgosaurus. It died out with all other dinosaurs at the end of the Cretaceous. Pachyrhinosaurus was discovered in 1950 by Charles Mortram Sternberg.
Pachyrhinosaurus was one of the largest ceratopsians. A typical adult grew to measure about 23–26 feet (7–8 m) long, stood over 7 feet (2.2 m) tall and weighed about as much as 4 tons (8,000 lbs.). These herbivores possessed strong cheek teeth to help them chew tough, fibrous plants. Pachyrhinosaurus was also relatively fast for a dinosaur of their size, let alone for a ceratopsian, running at speeds as fast as 25 mph.
Unlike more famous horned dinosaurs, like Triceratops and Torosaurus, instead of horns, Pachyrhinosaurus bore a massive, flattened nasal boss over the nose and a smaller one over the eye. The bosses over the nose and eyes nearly grew together and were separated only by a narrow groove. Their frill bore two additional small, curved, prominent, backward-pointed horns that grew from the frill and extended upwards. The presence of these horns varied by age or sex.
In P. canadensis and P. perotorum, the bosses over the nose and eyes nearly grew together, and were separated only by a narrow groove. In P. lakustai, the two bosses were separated by a wide gap. In P. canadensis and P. lakustai, the frill bore two additional small, curved, backward-pointed horns. These were not present in P. perotorum, and in fact, some specimens of P. lakustai also lack them, which may indicate that the presence of these horns varied by age or sex.
Various ornaments of the nasal boss have also been used to distinguish between different species of Pachyrhinosaurus. Both P. lakustai and P. perotorum bore a jagged, comb-like extension at the tip of the boss which was missing in P. canadensis. P. perotorum was unique in having a narrow dome in the middle of the back portion of the nasal boss, and P. lakustai had a pommel-like structure projecting from the front of the boss (the boss of P. canadensis was mainly flat on top and rounded). P. perotorum bore two unique, flattened horns which projected forward and down from the top edge of the frill, and P. lakustai bore another comb-like horn arising from the middle of the frill behind the eyes.
Behavior & TraitsEdit
Like all members of the ceratopsian family, Pachyrhinosaurus traveled in large herds. During jousting tournaments, in a similar manner to Pachycephalosaurus, the Pachyrhinosaurus males would ram into each other's heads while fighting. Sometimes against a predator, Pachyrhinosaurus would ram into those predators as a fighting mechanism.
The females also cared greatly for their young. For example, like birds, female Pachyrhinosaurus would find food on the forests and bring them back to the nesting sights.
- The sound effects of Pachyrhinosaurus are that of bull, cow, and buffalo.