Life at this time was a constant battle with the elements. The climate changed between seasonal extremes, from flaming summers to sub-zero winters. A new species of plant had evolved as well, able to withstand the cold, dry atmosphere of the Permian: primitive conifers. These trees contained an early form of anti-freeze, which helped them withstand the cold winter. They also had extremely tough, hard leaves making them particularly difficult to digest. In this harsh, unpredictable world, creatures must be tough and adaptable to survive.
But towards the end of the Permian, all the continents had drifted together to create one giant land mass called Pangaea. And at its center was the largest desert the world had ever seen. It was a brutal world where animals have to be especially tough. Perfect for reptiles. However, in this harsh landscape, the reptiles biggest battle was with the elements. A massive surge in volcanic activity has begun to super-heat the atmosphere, creating the highest temperatures life on has ever known. Each year, the deserts spread and animals were forced to cluster around any lasting source of water, no matter how small.
The list of animals during the Permian: