|“||With its huge size and characteristic crest, this could only be one thing. Not a bird, but a giant flying reptile, a pterosaur called Pteranodon.||„|
|— Allen, about Pteranodon|
Pteranodon (name meaning "Toothless Wing") is a genus of large pterosaur that originated during the Early Cretaceous period in what is now North and South America as well as Europe. With a wingspan of 7 meters wide and said to be among the world's most recognizable pterosaur, perhaps its most characteristic features is a crest projecting off the back of the skull.
In the Series 2 episode "Clash of the Titans" a number of six Pteranodons were brought back to the park from South America of 120 million years ago. They reside in the Aviary exhibit with other pterosaurs. In the Series 2 finale "Fall of a Kingdom Part II: The Return of the King", a single female Pteranodon, named Terra, was rescued from Montana of 65 million years ago.
Era & DiscoveryEdit
Pteranodon lived during the Early to Late Cretaceous period from 125–65 million years ago. Since their discovery by Othniel Charles Marsh in 1870, their fossils have been found in various places across the world. As we result, Pteranodon has become the most well-known pterosaur in the world.
Pteranodon, especially the bigger and older males, was a large pterosaur compared to other pterosaurs. While the average wingspan for Pteranodon is over 20 feet (6 m) and weighed around 50 kg, the largest known specimen had a wingspan of roughly 30 feet (9 m) from wingtip to wingtip and weighed 100 kg. A second, larger specimen had a wingspan of about 32 feet (10 m).
Pteranodon had a toothless beak and lived primarily on fish and other small marine animals. However, they would from time to time eat dead carcasses. Pteranodon also possessed a cranial crest. The size of the crest differentiated between genders and species of Pteranodon.
Like with all pterosaurs, Pteranodons were excellent fliers as well as gliders. The wings of Pteranodon, though large, were more fragile than bird wings, and much thinner. They were leathery and naked (the body of Pteranodon was possibly covered in fur) and could be easily damaged. A ground Pteranodon was vulnerable both to predators, such as Tyrannosaurus and to starvation.
Behavior & TraitsEdit
Pteranodon often swarmed in huge numbers and although not related to birds, it lived in a manner similar to the modern sea birds, such as the albatross. To escape predators, to catch the thermals, and to be close to the sea, Pteranodon lived and nested on top of high coastal cliffs and mountains, especially by shorelines. There, it nested and raised its young. Female Pteranodon laid eggs and made nests like modern seabirds. They would then need to provide food for their offspring. Surprisingly, males and females were both fiercely defensive of their nests and territory, attacking any intruders that entered or even came near their nests.
Pteranodon spent most of its life in the air. It probably only landed to mate, to nest and to rest. The diet was small reptiles and fish, as fish bones have been found in their ribcages. It hunted by dipping its lower jaw into the water and skimming it until they detected prey. Pteranodon would then snap its jaws together and would then fly away. It has also been suggested that they dived for fish by folding their wings back, similar to a modern-day gannet. Any Pteranodon that could fly because of illness or injury would either starve to death or would be eaten by predators.
Pteranodon was a fish-eater, and hunted out at sea, far away from the coast. There, it either dove into the water like the modern gannets and pelicans and picked fish from the surface of the water, like the frigate birds and the albatross. In its turn, it was prey both to large marine reptiles like Tylosaurus and to large fish like Xiphactinus. Despite Pteranodon being described as a normally passive animal, they have been known however to be carnivorous and were much more vicious and aggressive. Therefore, they were known to, given the chance, attack and subdue large smaller animals and then rip their torsos open and devour their internal organs.
- The sound effects of Pteranodon are that of eagle, hawk, seagull, and vulture sound effects.
- Pteranodon is the third-largest pterosaur brought to the Park.